What are the most common symptoms of narcolepsy?
Narcolepsy is characterized by the following symptoms:
  • Irresistible,uncontrollable desire to sleep (while talking, working, eating, driving or in a meeting) that interferes the quality of life.
  • There may be unexpected falls due to muscle weakness(cataplexy) which is triggered by emotions such as laughter, excitement , surprise etc.
  • Vivid dreams ( hallucinations)
  • Sleep paralysis—one is unable to speak or move during sleep, this lasts for a few seconds, with quick recovery.
  • Poor quality sleep.
What is the cause of narcolepsy?
There are cells in brain that secrete a substance that keeps us awake (orexin). In narcolepsy there is a severe decrease of that substance; narcolepsy can also be caused by stroke, infection, or even injury, if the same area of brain is involved.
How is narcolepsy diagnosed?
Narcolepsy can be diagnosed by its symptoms (clinically), followed by overnight sleep test, & daytime sleep test.( MSLT)
What is Restless leg syndrome?
Restless Leg Syndrome is characterized by the following:
  • Difficulty in falling asleep due to restlessness /pain /discomfort /crawling /creeping sensation, jerking in legs in evening time relieved by movement, walking , massaging legs or by tying a cloth around your legs to relieve the symptoms
  • Problem often arises during long flights or meetings, car rides where one has to sit for long time.
What causes RLS?
RLS can be caused by certain medical conditions & medications such as :
  • Low blood iron levels
  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy
  • Kidney disorders
  • Certain vitamin or mineral deficiencies
  • Nerve problem in the spine or legs
  • Poor blood circulation in legs
  • Genetic -if family member has similar complaints
  • Medications like anti allergic, anti nausea , & anti depressant medicines may worsen RLS.
What happens if RLS is not treated?
The symptoms cause difficulty in falling asleep, poor quality of sleep.This results in tiredness, sleepiness during the day.
RLS symptoms may interfere with ability to sit for long meetings, watch movies, car, plane rides
Most people with RLS have jerking movements of legs in sleep, resulting in ''brief awakenings''. These can cause increase in blood pressure, blood sugar levels etc.
What are the common symptoms of sleep disorders?
The most common symptoms of sleep disorder are :
  • Poor sleep
  • Increased sleep during the day
  • Abnormal behaviour in sleep such as sleep walking , sleep terrors etc.
What are the most common sleep disorders?
Most common sleep disorders:
  • Insomnia
  • Obstructive Sleep Disorder
  • Parasomnia
What is Insomnia?
The word insomnia comes from Latin words in (no) & somnus (sleep).It literally means 'no sleep' or inability to sleep.
Insomnia is an experience of inadequate or poor quality of sleep usually seen with one or more of the following complaints:
  • Difficulty in falling asleep;
  • Difficulty in staying asleep;
  • Waking up too early in the morning ; or
  • Having a non refreshed sleep
  • Feeling tired/ having body ache during the day etc.
What are common causes of poor sleep?
There are variable causes of poor sleep:
  • Poor sleep habits like increased use of digital media (I pads, smart-phones, LEDs etc), increased caffeine intake, increased tobacco,
    alcohol abuse before bed, late night gym etc.
  • Co-morbid psychological disorders like depression, anxiety etc.
  • Co-morbid medical disorders like fever, body pains, arthritis, cough, breathlessness etc.
  • Primary sleep disorders like Sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome & periodic limb movement.
  • Environmental factors like too much light, noise in bedroom
What is Obstructive sleep apnea?
This is an interruption in breathing during sleep.There is narrowing of breathing passage leading to partial or complete closure.
What happens as a result of OSA?
As a result of OSA the oxygen levels in the blood fall.This causes repeated disruptions in sleep , with resultant increase in chronic daytime sleepiness, tiredness.

The drop in blood oxygen level causes disruption in sleep, increased stress due to release of certain chemicals (superoxides, c-reactive protein , adrenalin , epinephrine ) which increases blood pressure, blood sugar, leads to weight gain, increases chances of having heart attacks & brain attacks.
What are the most common symptoms of OSA?
Symptoms of OSA:
  • Loud snoring, interrupted by pauses in breathing (apnea)
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness, tiredness on waking up
  • Gasping or choking during sleep
  • Memory loss, poor judgment / concentration
  • Mood changes - irritability, depression
  • Hypertension
  • Weight gain
  • Headaches
  • Sexual dysfunction- impotence
  • Frequent urination at night
Who are the people prone to OSA ?
Snoring is a commonest symptom of sleep apnea which is more common in males who are overweight, who have high blood pressure, nasal blockage, small upper airway due to excess throat tissue or abnormal jaw structure & family history of sleep apnea.
What are the complications of Sleep apnea?
People with sleep apnea have increased risk of high blood pressure, heart beat disturbances, heart attacks, brain attacks, pre-diabetes , weight gain, work related & road accidents due to sleepiness.
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